Tripple Gee and Company Plc (TRIPPL.ng) listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange under the Technology sector has released it’s 2021 interim results for the half year.For more information about Tripple Gee and Company Plc (TRIPPL.ng) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Tripple Gee and Company Plc (TRIPPL.ng) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Tripple Gee and Company Plc (TRIPPL.ng) 2021 interim results for the half year.Company ProfileTripple Gee & Company Plc manufactures and sells paper and packaging products in Nigeria and specialising in printing financial instruments and security documents. The company services the banking, oil and gas, pharmaceutical and FMCG sectors as well as government regulatory bodies. Security documents include MICR encoded and personalised cheques, dividend warrants, share certificates, ballot papers and election stationary as well as licenses and permits, customs revenue collection forms and receipts, statement of accounts, utility bills and pension contributions. Tripple Gee & Company Plc also offers packaging and labeling products which includes pharmaceutical labels, anti-counterfeit labels and packaging labels such as printed nylon, BOPP, PVC and shrink packaging products. Its head office is in Lagos, Nigeria. Tripple Gee & Company Plc is listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange
About Melanie May Melanie May is a journalist and copywriter specialising in writing both for and about the charity and marketing services sectors since 2001. She can be reached via www.thepurplepim.com. Advertisement Tagged with: charity fraud 198 total views, 2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis15 Some charities selling packages of used stamps as a means of raising funds are inadvertently enabling fraud, the Charity Commission has warned, when these stamps are fraudulently resold as valid postage.The Commission is advising charities to avoid engaging in this activity unless they are certain that the stamps collected and sold are genuinely being bought by collectors, and are not being used for fraudulent purposes.It has issued this advice on warning signs to look out for:Requests to bulk buyBe wary of requests from individuals to purchase UK or GB ‘kiloware’ from you in bulk. Genuine collectors tend to have their own sources of used stamps and often trade with each other – it is unlikely that they would specifically call on charities to provide loose stamps.Requests for certain types of stampsThere is no reason for any genuine dealer to request previously used, uncancelled stamps, ‘Non Value Indicator’ stamps (do not display a price), or Christmas stamps in bulk. An uncancelled stamp is one that has been through the postal system, but not marked as used.Offering to deal stamps on your behalfSome stamp collectors may genuinely request foreign or specialist stamps but charities should consider a company or person offering to deal stamps on their behalf as a potential red flag.To protect a charity from stamp fraud, the Commission is recommending declining requests from individuals or groups who wish to purchase used GB stamps directly – either through direct contact or via a charity’s online marketplace.It also recommends checking the type of stamps you are collecting as foreign stamps are less likely to be fraudulently sold in the UK, checking that your charity name is not being used in ‘kiloware’ advertising without your permission, and only buying stamps for a charity’s own use from the Post Office or another reputable seller.Charities should also let Royal Mail know if they suspect a request may not be from a genuine dealer.Commenting on the alert, an Oxfam spokesperson said:“The focus of Oxfam’s stamp sales is on rare and vintage collections. Following the Charity Commission’s warning, our trading team is in the process of alerting our shop network to the issue. We are in touch with the Charity Retail Association for advice and reviewing our guidance in line with other charity retailers.” 197 total views, 1 views today Melanie May | 13 December 2018 | News Some charities inadvertently enabling stamp fraud, Charity Commission warns AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis15
The working-class movement and the oppressed here must answer Trump and the entire racist, anti-immigrant establishment with cross-border solidarity, with class solidarity toward all workers, no matter where they come from, in a common struggle against the exploiters.— — — — — UPDATE: Jan 23 — The Democratic Party leadership has agreed to end the government shutdown in return for a pledge by Republican Senate leader Mitch McConnell to “be fair” in taking up immigration. The lives of 800,000 dreamers are in the hands of the Senate and House Republican anti-immigration racists.Jan. 22 — The present government shutdown crisis is essentially about immigration and Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA). There could be a surprise deal at any time that would put an end to the shutdown. But this crisis has already revealed much.In this struggle, the basic characteristics of the primary players have come to the fore. The relentless, brutal, racist cruelty of Donald Trump and the Republican Party has stood out. On the other hand, the cowardice and opportunism of the Democratic Party leadership has been laid bare.The cynics of the Republican Party tried to force the Democratic Party into a deal to stop the shutdown by holding out a six-year extension of the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP). The Republicans don’t care one whit about CHIP. Funding for CHIP was passed in the House on Nov. 3, 2017, and has been sitting in the Senate ever since. The health care of 9 million children has been held hostage by the Republicans as a wedge against the Democrats.At the same time, the Democratic Party leadership, in the person of Sen. Chuck Schumer, got on his knees before Trump, offering $20 billion for a border wall along the Mexican border as part of an attempt to get a last-minute deal and avoid a government shutdown.This craven concession to the racism, repression and massive militarization of the border is aiding Trump’s hard line on immigration. As such, it is unconscionable opportunism. It should be noted as well that the Democrats, led by Schumer and Rep. Nancy Pelosi, are motivating an end to the shutdown by citing the need for military preparedness and planning.And beneath it all, it is clear that while there is a “shutdown” of many vital social services, with tens of thousands of government workers facing unpaid furloughs, the repressive apparatus of the state — the military, ICE, the FBI, courts, etc. — will continue to function.DACA at core of shutdown struggleAt the core of the shutdown is the struggle over continuation of the DACA program set up by former President Barack Obama. It allowed more than 800,000 immigrants, who were brought here by their parents when they were children, to stay, provided they went to school, joined the military or otherwise conformed to government guidelines.These Dreamers came out of the shadows of living without papers, revealed themselves to the immigration authorities and registered for Dreamer status. They all now have work permits and have been living here for years. Most of them have no connection to or are completely unfamiliar with their countries of origin.This present government shutdown crisis was set off when Trump cancelled the DACA program last Sept. 5 and destroyed the protected status of DACA immigrants. Trump gave Congress until March 5 to “fix” DACA. This was Trump’s way of ducking immediate responsibility for the mass deportation of 800,000-plus Dreamers while appealing to the right-wing base of the Republican Party and his own base by being tough on immigration.In the shutdown struggle, Trump has been guided by his military handler, John Kelly — a Marine general and his chief of staff. Kelly and Stephen Miller, a right-wing Trump adviser, have blocked the way for any deal on allowing DACA to resume. Kelly represents the direct intervention of the military brass into White House politics.Kelly, the military and TrumpAs former head of the Southern Command, Kelly was an enforcer of the repressive political, social and economic conditions in Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean and Latin American countries in general. He and the Pentagon, along with the corporate exploiters of Latin America, are prime movers of the immigration crisis.Kelly has been at Trump’s side during crucial points in negotiations on DACA. According to numerous reports, Kelly was with Trump in the hours before he met with Sens. Dick Durbin, a Democrat, and Lindsey Graham, a Republican, about a compromise resolution. It would have offered full status for Dreamers in return for a downpayment on funding for Trump’s wall on the southern border with Mexico.While Trump was reportedly friendly to the proposal, Kelly thought it too moderate. He called on Republicans to attend a meeting to sink the potential deal.Graham is a hardcore militarist, allied with Sen. John McCain, and a hawk for war against the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. But Graham wants to stop Trump from ruining the reputation of U.S. imperialism at home and abroad by preventing him from expelling 800,000 Dreamers. After Trump invited him to come to the White House with Durbin following a friendly phone call, the two showed up to find that immigration hawks were in the room along with Trump. That was when Trump went into his racist rage about “shithole countries,” referring to African nations, Haiti and El Salvador, and blew up the chance for any deal.Kelly-Miller ambushAccording to media reports, Kelly got on the phone before the meeting and encouraged Sens. Tom Cotton of Arkansas and David Perdue of Georgia, two anti-immigration fanatics, to come to the meeting. It was an ambush.Afterwards, Graham spoke to the press to complain. According to an article by Jonathan Blitzer, someone “close to the White House” told him that “Miller and Kelly are to the right of the president on immigration. The two of them were with the president just before the Oval Office meeting with Graham and Durbin, and the president got really worked up.” (New Yorker, Jan. 17)A similar event took place when Sen. Chuck Schumer went to meet with Trump. The only person in the room, besides Trump, Schumer and a Schumer aide, was Gen. Kelly. After the meeting, Kelly phoned Republicans to tell them that the deal was too liberal, even though Schumer reportedly offered Trump $20 billion for the wall.According to another report, “Kelly, the retired four-star Marine who’d sat aside Trump during lunch … called Schumer. The outline discussed earlier in the day was too liberal, Kelly said, even with a discussion of Trump’s full border request. It wasn’t enough to keep the president negotiating.” (CNN, Jan. 20)Having been in such a high position in the military hierarchy, Kelly has deep connections to the brass, both active duty and retired. Kelly does not function as an individual or in a political vacuum. In fact, he functions side-by-side on a daily basis with Secretary of Defense James “Mad Dog” Mattis, a retired Marine general who in 2004 infamously led the destruction of Fallujah in Iraq.The ‘grownups in the room’The capitalist press has praised Kelly, Mattis and National Security Advisor Lt. Gen. H.R. McMaster (active duty). The mainstream capitalist media and political establishment that have been fearful of Trump used to express sighs of relief about the military “grownups in the room” who would supposedly supervise or exercise a restraining influence on Trump.One look at Kelly and it is clear who needs restraining.There is another lesson inherent in the “government shutdown.” The “essential services” that remain operational and fully functional are the hard core of the repressive forces of the capitalist state. To the ruling class, even a government shutdown must not interfere with the repression and persecution of the masses.For example, the Border Patrol, ICE, FBI, military, courts and U.S. marshals largely remain open and fully functional. They continue to carry out raids, round up immigrants, prepare for military aggression, and spy on and hound progressives, the poor and the oppressed.Meanwhile, according to the New York Times of Jan. 20, the lion’s share of the layoffs would take place in the social service agencies:Housing and Urban Development would furlough 7,500 out of its 7,800 workers, or 96 percent.The Environmental Protection Agency would furlough 13,700 out of 14,400 workers, or 95 percent.The Department of Education would furlough 3,700 out of 3,900 workers, or 95 percent.The Commerce Department would lay off 41,600 of 47,900 workers or 87 percent. According to the Times, “work would stall across a wide swath of scientific and economic agencies, including the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, the Census Bureau and the International Trade Administration.”The Department of Interior would furlough 56,600 out of 70,400 workers, or 80 percent.Health and Human Services would lay off 50 percent of its 81,000 workers.But the courts and the Justice Department would furlough only 19,500 out of 114,600 employees, or 17 percent. And Homeland Security would lay off just 13 percent of 241,400 employees.From a trade union point of view, this shutdown can be viewed as a government lockout of hundreds of thousands of workers, many of whom are under union contract and represented by the American Federation of Government Employees.From a broader social point of view, it represents a lockout of millions of people who rely on government services that were to be shut down.Fight back against criminalization of immigrantsThe DACA fight is part of a larger assault by the Trump administration to criminalize immigrants. The Department of Homeland Security declared that basically all 11 million undocumented immigrants are “criminals” subject to deportation at any time. Their crime? Crossing the border to flee poverty and repression brought about by U.S. imperialism’s ransacking of their countries.A further part of this attempt to criminalize the immigrant population was Trump’s cancellation of temporary protected status (TPS) for almost 262,000 Salvadorians, 86,000 Hondurans, 58,000 Haitians and 5,300 Nicaraguans.TPS was granted by Washington in 1990 to immigrants fleeing war, the aftermath of natural disasters and other dangerous conditions in their home countries. Of course, these conditions were caused by forced underdevelopment, exploitation and death-squad governments created by U.S. imperialism in the first place.Many of those with TPS have lived here for years. They have set down roots here. Have built families here, own homes, have children who are in schools, etc. That is because their status has been renewed at regular intervals.The Mexican border was created by U.S. capitalism when it stole half of Mexico in 1848 and ran roughshod over Native lands. It has become a racist political barrier dictated by Washington and the bosses and bankers in the U.S. It has become the basis for endless repression and discrimination. And it has led to superexploitation of immigrant workers in the U.S.The working-class movement and the oppressed here must answer Trump and the entire racist, anti-immigrant establishment with cross-border solidarity, with class solidarity toward all workers, no matter where they come from, in a common struggle against the exploiters.FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare this
Education Maranatha’s 2016 Graduates Ready to Change the World Article and Photos courtesy of MARANATHA HIGH SCHOOL Published on Monday, June 6, 2016 | 3:33 pm Name (required) Mail (required) (not be published) Website Maranatha High School celebrated their Class of 2016 Commencement Ceremony at Lake Avenue Church on Saturday, June 4. Over 2,000 proud parents, family members, and friends cheered as 175 students became a part of the school’s proud alumni tradition. Current and former staff, board members, and school alumni were all asked to stand in recognition of their contribution to the school and to the Class of 2016. Dr. Steve Sherman, Maranatha’s new Head of School who will begin mid-June, was also recognized and welcomed again to the community he has already begun heavily investing in.In addition to the awarding of diplomas, special awards were given to students honoring their academic excellence, athletic achievements, and Christian character. Attendees heard from the Class of 2016 Valedictorian Erin Songwang and Salutatorian Rohini Vyas. These speakers touched on how they have received a firm foundation at Maranatha and are now ready to meet the challenges of this world. The keynote speaker for the celebration was Maranatha’s new principal John Rouse, who received a standing ovation when he was introduced. This well-loved Maranatha staff of 33 years recently took over as principal and the community could not be more thrilled with his appointment. Mr. Rouse addressed the graduates challenging them to stand firm in their faith and to be strong and courageous as they venture out into the world.Maranatha’s Class of 2016 students have been accepted to many of the nation’s most prestigious private institutions such as Stanford, Yale, Columbia University, Purdue, Texas A&M, Spelman, Boston, Northwestern, and Virginia Tech, as well as California’s top universities such as UC Berkeley, USC, and UCLA. A large population of their Senior Class will also continue to pursue an outstanding Christian education at schools like Wheaton, Azusa Pacific University, Texas Christian University, Seattle Pacific University, Biola University, and Westmont College. Finally, one Maranatha graduate will begin his college career and service to his country shortly at the US Military Academy, Westpoint.As Maranatha celebrates, through graduation, the close of the 2015-2016 school year, their staff look forward to an exciting 2016-2017 school year. With a well-loved “new” principal and a new Head of School, change is in the air at Maranatha. The school looks forward to renewal and a strengthening of their mission as a Christ-centered, evangelical, college preparatory school that celebrates the whole student by equipping hearts and minds to reflect God’s glory through academics, as well as the arts, athletics, and service.For more information on Maranatha High School, visit www.maranathahighschool.org or call (626) 817-4074. 2 recommended0 commentsShareShareTweetSharePin it Business News Community News Pasadena Will Allow Vaccinated People to Go Without Masks in Most Settings Starting on Tuesday faithfernandez More » ShareTweetShare on Google+Pin on PinterestSend with WhatsApp,PCC – EducationVirtual Schools PasadenaDarrell Done EducationHomes Solve Community/Gov/Pub SafetyPASADENA EVENTS & ACTIVITIES CALENDARClick here for Movie Showtimes Herbeauty10 Questions To Start Conversation Way Better Than ‘How U Doing?’HerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyHere Is What Scientists Say Will Happen When You Eat AvocadosHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeautyWant To Seriously Cut On Sugar? You Need To Know A Few TricksHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty6 Strong Female TV Characters Who Deserve To Have A SpinoffHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty7 Most Startling Movie Moments We Didn’t Realize Were InsensitiveHerbeautyHerbeautyHerbeauty8 Easy Exotic Meals Anyone Can MakeHerbeautyHerbeauty Home of the Week: Unique Pasadena Home Located on Madeline Drive, Pasadena More Cool Stuff Get our daily Pasadena newspaper in your email box. Free.Get all the latest Pasadena news, more than 10 fresh stories daily, 7 days a week at 7 a.m. Subscribe Community News First Heatwave Expected Next Week Top of the News Pasadena’s ‘626 Day’ Aims to Celebrate City, Boost Local Economy Make a comment EVENTS & ENTERTAINMENT | FOOD & DRINK | THE ARTS | REAL ESTATE | HOME & GARDEN | WELLNESS | SOCIAL SCENE | GETAWAYS | PARENTS & KIDS Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *
Previous Article Next Article on the move…On 4 May 2004 in Personnel Today Clare Bye has been appointed head of HR for property damage restorationcompany Munters. The former RAC HR operations manager will be based at thefirm’s national headquarters in Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire. ● Julia Hanley has joined the employment law department at Asb law tohead up a new HR consultancy. She will provide advice and support to businesseson recruitment and selection, change management, reviewing HR policies andprocedures, disciplinary and grievance issues and harmonising employment termsand conditions. ● TMI, the people development company, has announced the appointmentof Susan Mitterer as its new managing director. Mitterer, a director at TMIsince December 2000, has been promoted to lead the company in a bid to becomethe UK’s market leader for organisational and people development solutions. ● Mo Hazlehurst (pictured) has been appointed as the first HR managerat Vanguard Healthcare, a provider of mobile operating theatres to the NHS andprivate sector. A member of the Chartered Institute of Personnel andDevelopment, she was previously personnel manager at County Bookshops. Comments are closed. Related posts:No related photos.
Back to overview,Home naval-today Vietnam People’s Army Chief of General Staff Visits Australia View post tag: Australia View post tag: chief The Chief of the Defence Force, Air Chief Marshal Mark Binskin, welcomed Senior Lieutenant General Do Ba Ty, Chief of General Staff of the Vietnam People’s Army to Canberra yesterday at the start of a three-day visit to Australia.ACM Binskin said defence engagement between Vietnam and Australia had developed significantly since the formal bilateral defence relationship began in 1998.Our two defence forces are working to foster closer cooperation through regular dialogue, senior-level visits and training on themes of mutual interest.The relationship is focused on peacekeeping, maritime security and officer training.Port visits and training activities designed to further enhance our maritime security engagement support our shared interest in maintaining maritime and aviation security as well as countering piracy.During their meeting, ACM Binskin and Senior Lieutenant General Do Ba Ty discussed ways to increase practical cooperation between the two defence forces.During his time in Australia, Senior Lieutenant General Do Ba Ty will also visit the Australian Defence College and HMAS Stirling in Perth.[mappress mapid=”14400″]Press release, Image: Australian Navy View post tag: Army Vietnam People’s Army Chief of General Staff Visits Australia View post tag: Vietnam People View post tag: Navy Authorities View post tag: General View post tag: Naval View post tag: visits Share this article View post tag: Staff November 11, 2014 View post tag: Asia-Pacific View post tag: News by topic
The Department of Dermatology invites applications for a GeneralDermatologist physician to pursue a career with the Department ofDermatology in the College of Medicine at the University ofFlorida. This is a full time 1.00 FTE clinical track position.Primary duties include providing care for dermatology patients atUF Health Dermatology Springhill. It will be expected that thecandidate participates in teaching dermatology residents/fellows,medicine residents and medical students and share “on call” consultresponsibilities at Shands at UF.Applicants must have an M.D. degree and board-certified or boardeligible in Dermatology. Applicant must be eligible for a FloridaMedical License.This position was originally posted under requisition #500483.Previous applicants are still being considered and need notreapply.Please upload a CV, cover letter and three letters ofrecommendation in order to be considered for this position.Final candidate will be required to provide an official transcriptto the hiring department upon hire. A transcript will not beconsidered “official” if a designation of “issued to student” isvisible. Degrees from an education institution outside of theUnited States are required to be evaluated by a professionalcredentialing service provider approved by the National Associationof Credential Evaluation Services (NACES), which can be foundhttp://www.naces.org/If an accommodation due to a disability is needed to apply forthis position, please call 352-392-2477 or the Florida Relay Systemat 800-955-8771 (TDD). Hiring is contingent upon eligibility towork in the US. Searches are conducted in accordance with Florida’sSunshine Law.#medicine=35The University of Florida is committed to non-discrimination withrespect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex,sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, marital status,national origin, political opinions or affiliations, geneticinformation and veteran status in all aspects of employmentincluding recruitment, hiring, promotions, transfers, discipline,terminations, wage and salary administration, benefits, andtraining.
A new Cadbury production line has opened at Mondelēz International’s site in Birmingham as part of a £75m investment. Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills Sajid Javid opened the new line on Friday (21 August) as the government pledged to make the Midlands “an engine for growth” for the UK economy.The new production line at Cadbury is part of a major investment in Bournville, announced last year. It will make Cadbury Roses and Heroes assortments and Cadbury Dairy Milk bars.The investment includes spend on equipment and people with a new training facility and benefits to apprentices and operators.Mary Barnard, president of Northern Europe at Mondelēz International, said: “Our £75m investment into Bournville is not just about new machinery; it’s also about investing in the people who work here. We welcomed the opportunity for Mr Javid to visit our new training facility and meet with apprentices and operators to hear first-hand about the new skills, knowledge and qualifications they are gaining.”Javid said: “I want every part of the UK to grow and do well. But for far too long, a lot of it has just been about the south east. The Midlands already has so much going for it, with great household names like Cadbury, so it has the potential and the people.”Javid said the plan is to add £34bn to the Midlands economy by 2030 and create 300,000 more jobs.Mondelēz International employs more than 4,000 people in the UK across nine sites.Bournville 24-hour output:1.2 million Cadbury Creme Eggs5.5 million blocks of chocolate10 million assortment units (Cadbury Roses and Heroes)More than 400 million Cadbury Dairy Milk ButtonsOver 1 million Wispa bars
Legendary rapper, producer, and DJ Q-Tip will add a new item to his long list of professional endeavors: college professor. The founding A Tribe Called Quest MC/producer has announced that he will teach a new course examining the relationship between jazz and hip-hop at the Clive Davis Institute of Recorded Music in the Tisch School of the Arts at New York University this coming fall semester.The class will explore the boundary-breaking artists of the 1970s, 80s, and 90s and beyond who fused musical genres and prototyped new music techniques including The Last Poets, Stetsasonic, A Tribe Called Quest, Public Enemy, The Roots, Lauryn Hill, and Kendrick Lamar.According to a statement from the school:This course is among the first in the world to explore the underappreciated connections between jazz and hip-hop and combines historical and social perspectives with the opportunity to produce original music at the nexus of the two genres.Jazz emerged in the 1920s, prioritizing traditional musicianship, and hip-hop—born in the 1970s— favors non-traditional approaches and instrumentation, but the two styles continue to grow and influence each other. As one of the most successful figures in hip-hop, Q-Tip brings to NYU visionary ideas about the intersections and parallel developments of these musical styles.Q-Tip will conduct the course in tandem with the acclaimed journalist, writer, and producer Ashley Kahn. The course curriculum will be taught over seven class sessions, with each class split into two parts. The first part of each period will feature focused readings and listening assignments that “investigate the social, cultural, musical, and business aspects of the relationships between jazz and hip-hop.” The second portion of each lesson will focus on “musicianship, performance, composition, and production with students completing in-class and out-of-class assignments under Q-Tip’s mentorship, investigating compositional and studio choices at the nexus of hip hop and jazz, and working collaboratively to create, refine, and produce their own original musical works.”“I couldn’t be more excited to share with the students what I know and I look forward to them also teaching me. Teaching is an exchange of sharing and receiving for all involved,” says Q-Tip.“We’re thrilled to have Q-Tip join the faculty of The Clive Davis Institute of Recorded Music,” says Jason King, associate professor and director of Writing, History & Emergent Media Studies at the Clive Davis Institute. “In searching for instructors to teach in our program, our aim is to always bring top-flight working professionals to the classroom who have made a major impact in their fields. That’s why we’re so excited to welcome Q-Tip, since he’s a peerless icon who redefined hip-hop for generations to come and brought jazz to the genre, especially through his contribution with A Tribe Called Quest. He also has a natural instinct for teaching and cultivating excellence in students in terms of their focus on craft and expressive style. It’s going to be transformative to have him on board.”[via NYU]
For nearly four centuries, Harvard University has educated young people — and fed them. When the University responded to the COVID-19 pandemic in March by curtailing on-campus operations and sending students home, it maintained the teaching but not the feeding. Both functions will be restored someday. But maybe not exactly as before. Food’s significance for social inclusion and equality is the main theme of “Resetting the Table,” an exhibit at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography for which I was guest curator. Now that no one can gather around the exhibit’s central table — or any table at Harvard — I’ve been thinking about what past crises show about food and Harvard. Two earlier emergencies had different outcomes: the College’s use of food to enforce social hierarchy survived the American Revolution, but not World War II. It’ll be the second era’s more forthright reforms that we’ll need, moving forward.Once upon a time, Harvard students and faculty ate together, like a family. At meals, the faculty and president acted as kin and father, as if students were children who needed supervision. Students were younger on average than College students today and were considered intellectual apprentices. Meals were ways to remind them of their dependent status, even though, as free men, overwhelmingly white, they would eventually rank high. Although some students boarded out, the College discouraged this. Students could collect morning provisions from the Buttery and breakfast in their rooms, but other meals were eaten in common, at tables set with equipment, such as silver salt cellars, to mark community and ceremony. Exceptions to the College diet were granted only by petition. The authorities were scandalized, in 1723, when students were caught “going into town, on Sabbath mornings, to provide breakfasts.” (Everything has a history, even Sunday brunch.) Some cravings proved impossible to control. In 1759, students were permitted to hold private entertainments with rum punch, and no adult supervision, so long as the punch wasn’t too strong.Silver salt cellars were placed on student dining tables to mark community and ceremony. © President and Fellows of Harvard College Repository Harvard Art MuseumsStructured meals survived the College’s first major disruption, the American Revolution. For a time, students could model any dissatisfaction with Harvard food on Colonial protests of British policies. In 1766, when served rancid butter, students protested: “Behold our Butter stinketh!” They met, passed resolutions to walk out of breakfast, and did the walkout. The Corporation and Overseers demanded confessions and a pledge of future good conduct. So much for defying oppression within Harvard. Meanwhile, the Boston area was becoming a hotspot in the bigger rebellion. On May 1, 1775, 12 days after the battles of Lexington and Concord, the Massachusetts Committee of Safety (with executive power over the province) dismissed Harvard students early for summer vacation. The Massachusetts Provincial Congress then commandeered Harvard’s grounds and buildings for the Continental Army — 640 soldiers crammed into Massachusetts Hall. The College ordered students to reassemble in Concord on Oct. 4. There, faculty and students boarded in taverns and private homes. Tavernkeepers and householders acted in loco parentis, supervising the behavior of the young men they lodged and fed.By June 1776, Harvard could reoccupy its property, and College life resumed. After the war, the student body outgrew available accommodations within the Yard. By 1849, Harvard abandoned dining in common. Students (still all male, still overwhelmingly white) no longer considered themselves the social inferiors of the president and faculty. They were private gentlemen, with new emphasis on the social differences among them. Cambridge boardinghouses took anyone who could pay, but some students created private club tables to which members had to be elected. Students with even greater means lived luxuriously in private accommodations and ate at restaurants.,Social inequalities remained obvious even once dining in common was reinstated after 1874, with the construction of Memorial Hall and organization of the Harvard Dining Association. The association was essentially a club with membership fees. Its food service reinforced the status of Harvard’s white male undergraduates, who were served at table, as if at a restaurant. The waiters were predominantly African American men. “Mem Hall” had set menus, but also lists of extras for those who could afford oysters, imported cheeses, or other delicacies. The University tried to maintain this service through World War I, but Memorial Hall began to operate at a loss. It was closed in 1925. Food service continued for freshmen in the Harvard Union, now the Barker Center. Upperclassmen had to fend for themselves. They fared best if their family backgrounds gave them entrance to private clubs.Construction of the residential Houses restored a universal food service. The first two Houses, Dunster and Lowell, opened in 1930, and others at Harvard and Radcliffe eventually accommodated most undergraduates. House dining halls maintained table service with waiters, but offered full board for a fixed price, rather than clubby membership and pay-as-you-go. These developments mirrored what was happening at Harvard more generally, as it became more socially inclusive, more egalitarian. Students were now primarily citizens of the nation and, in a sense, of Harvard.Citizenship was crucial to food and eating at Harvard during World War II, once the U.S. entered the war against fascism. By May 1942, all U.S. civilians received ration books, with quotas for many foods, including sugar, coffee, butter, and meat. Harvard and Radcliffe food services had to calculate students’ rations into what could be bought and served. During the war, the Faculty Club economically served horsemeat (which lingered on the menu until the 1970s). Wartime labor shortages were even more transformative. Men who might have waited tables were drafted, volunteered, or did other war work. Some Houses hired waitresses; others used students as waiters.After the war, the Houses universally adopted cafeteria service, a more democratic way of eating. This development matched efforts to make Harvard more inclusive and egalitarian: admitting students on the G.I. Bill, blending Radcliffe’s female students into Harvard, and accepting more people of color and first-generation students. House dining halls were inclusive communities, collectives of equals. That was quite new at Harvard. It was prompted by U.S. policies — rationing, universal male conscription, Civil Rights legislation — that had no real antecedents, not even in the “revolutionary” era. The policies offered a minimum of redress for past inequities. That bare foundation never generated enough shelter from the fatal consequences of American racism. No one knows what a post-COVID world will look like. But at Harvard, as we decide how we will teach, when (and whom) we might feed, we have another opportunity to set a better table and a better example.Joyce Chaplin is the James Duncan Phillips Professor of Early American History. On July 1, Chaplin will be featured on the Harvard Museums of Science and Culture Connects podcast available here.