The science of the artificial

first_img Researchers are creating an AI system that can mimic human clinical decision-making SEAS: What are choice set effects?PARKES: I show you a cheap, moderate-cost, and expensive coffee machine and you pick the moderately priced one. But, if I show you a moderate, expensive, and uber-luxury machine, you pick the …? SEAS: Expensive one.You brought up private companies such as Amazon and Microsoft. Proprietary and black-box algorithms must pose a challenge to understanding machine behavior. How can we understand why a machine behaves the way it does when we don’t know what the algorithm is or how it makes decisions?PARKES: Funnily enough, the algorithms need not themselves be very complicated. The algorithms for training a deep-learning system, which describe the architecture of a model and the way in which a model will be trained, can typically be expressed in just tens of lines of code (albeit code that then builds on top of other, lower-level code). It is the trained models that are complex and somewhat inscrutable, often considered to be a “black box.” But it is not hopeless, and there are many sensible research directions — for example, requiring simpler models, insisting on a post hoc explanation of the behavior of complex models, and using visualization and sensitivity analyses to try to understand the way these models work and test theories about behavior. The Daily Gazette Sign up for daily emails to get the latest Harvard news. In the quest for clean, limitless energy through nuclear fusion, scientists use ‘deep learning’ AI to predict destructive disruptions Containing the sun In 1969, artificial-intelligence pioneer and Nobel laureate Herbert Simon proposed a new science, one that approached the study of artificial objects just as one would study natural objects.“Natural science is knowledge about natural objects and phenomena,” Simon wrote. “We ask whether there cannot also be ‘artificial’ science — knowledge about artificial objects and phenomena.”Now, 50 years later, a team of researchers from Harvard, MIT, Stanford, the University of California, San Diego, Google, Facebook, Microsoft, and other institutions is renewing that call. In a recent paper published in the journal Nature, the researchers proposed a new, interdisciplinary field — machine behavior — that would study artificial intelligence through the lens of biology, economics, psychology, and other behavioral and social sciences.Intelligent machines, the researchers argue, can no longer be viewed solely as the products of engineering and computer science; rather, they should be seen as a new class of actors with their own behaviors and ecology.The Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) spoke with David Parkes, the George F. Colony Professor of Computer Science and co-author of the paper, about this emerging field and what the future has in store for intelligent machines.Q&ADavid ParkesSEAS: For so long, the study of artificial intelligence and intelligent machines has been confined to the realm of computer science, and the researchers who built the machines were the same ones who studied their behavior. Why is it important to expand the scope of study to include new fields, including behavioral and social sciences?PARKES: First, a separation between the designers and builders of intelligent machines and those who study how they are used (or not) can bring an independent viewpoint in developing and testing the right sets of hypotheses about the performance of these technologies. There are pragmatic reasons too, in that the study of intelligent machines becomes a behavioral science, requiring quite different kinds of expertise. Another point is that systems developed in the narrow confines of a lab may behave very differently “in the wild,” when behavior becomes a product of the way in which they are used, including the many ways that are different from what their designers had intended. Microsoft’s Tay bot [which began posting offensive tweets after trolls “taught” her hate speech] is one unfortunate but not-so-unique example.SEAS: How might the fields of machine behavior and computer science grow together and inform each other moving forward?PARKES: As computer science has come to have such impact, the field has come to embrace what economists might refer to as “positive analysis,” which is to say analysis that is based on the empirical and experimental studies of deployed, computational systems — the structure of the World Wide Web, the propagation of information on social networks, or the way in which interactive tutoring systems are used, to give just three examples. Intelligent machines are a new kind of artifact that we need to study and understand, and we’ll need to do this in an interdisciplinary way that includes computer scientists working collaboratively with social scientists, humanists, ethicists, legal scholars, to name just a few. More broadly, the study of machine behavior will be impacted by advances in data science, in working at scale with vast amounts of different kinds of data, and in leveraging methods of probabilistic machine learning and statistics to tease out cause and effect.SEAS: Your work focuses on the intersection of AI and economics. What questions of machine behavior are you most interested in answering?PARKES: I am interested in a research program that studies machine behavior within the algorithmic economy, including pricing algorithms, recommender algorithms, and reputation systems, as well as in the context of blockchains. We can already see a trajectory toward the automation of many of the core constituents of what makes up an economic system, and the machine behavior lens is a good one because behavior is emergent, meaning it’s based not only on individual interactions but also on societal and economic forces. I think recommender systems such as those employed by Amazon are especially interesting and important to study because that’s where we’ll see thorny questions arise around behavioral economics, algorithmic marketing, and ethics … For example, is it okay for an intelligent recommender to leverage “choice set effects” to drive up revenue? “There is a need to move forward deliberatively … while at the same time with the recognition that people and machines will continue to become bound together in new and unexpected ways.” SEAS: Artificial intelligence already plays such a large role in our lives. What is the importance of establishing this new field of research now? Are you afraid it’s being started too late, when so much of the foundation of AI has already been laid?PARKES: Well, it’s never too late, and we’re only at the beginning of the wave of change that will come from the development of intelligent machines. There is a need to move forward deliberatively, with appropriate measures of curiosity, creativity, and responsibility, while at the same time with the recognition that people and machines will continue to become bound together in new and unexpected ways. What’s important is the recognition of the need for scientific study, and this review article brings together threads in this emerging, interdisciplinary field of machine behavior. Related Building a better med studentlast_img read more

Managing the contentious Presidential race in the workplace

first_img 1SHARESShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr Presidential candidates Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump have two things in common: They are controversial and disliked by many.Although the home stretch of the election officially launched during the Labor Day weekend, it seems the heated debates over the candidates got off to an early start everywhere, including the workplace. And that can create major headaches for HR leaders if political banter among employees turns ugly, according to the Society of Human Resource Management.In June, weeks before the Democratic and Republican national conventions, SHRM released the results of a survey that showed 26% of HR professionals perceived a greater political volatility in the workplace this year compared with previous election years. continue reading »last_img read more

Zis Is What I Call Social Madness

first_imgCharisma News 31 August 2015In the latest example of social madness, Rickey Hall, the vice chancellor for diversity and inclusion at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville, is calling on all students to use gender inclusive pronouns like “ze, hir, zir, xe, xem and xyr” in order to make the campus “welcoming and inclusive for all.”On another front, Bruce “Caitlyn” Jenner has said that he would like to date a man so that he could be treated like a woman. But his suggestion was rebuffed by interviewer and friend Jenny Boylan who replied, “Caitlyn Jenner, you are a normal woman right now, today. You don’t need a man to make you a woman.”Seriously? Bruce Jenner, with male voice and taking hormones to overcome his maleness is “a normal woman right now, today”?At the risk of being redundant, may I ask again: Is the whole world going mad?We not only have a push for gender neutral bathrooms in cities across America but we have:◦Biological men being told they are “normal” women.◦Facebook offering 50 ways to define your gender (and if that’s not enough, you can just fill in the blank with the description of your choice).◦Activists claiming that saying, “It’s a boy (or, girl)” at birth is playing “Russian roulette with your baby’s life.”◦Teenagers rebelling against the “gender binary” and saying, “Call me Tractor.”◦Presenters on YouTube describing themselves as “your average multiracial, pansexual, transracially inseminated queerspawn, genderqueer, transdyke, colonized mestiza, pornographer, activist, writer.”◦Children’s schools fighting against any “gendered space” and saying it would be better to call the kids “purple penguins” than refer to them as girls and boys – just to mention a few of the absurd things taking place today in the name of transgender sensitivity. (I document all this in Outlasting the Gay Revolution in the chapter focused on the fifth principle of the book: Celebrate Gender Distinctions.)At what point we will realize that the more we deny gender distinctions, the more we deny the most basic foundations of humanity? At what point we will wake up from this descent into moral and social stupor?It is one thing to have compassion on those who struggle with deep-seated gender identity issues, and I will call for compassion and understanding as long as I have a voice.It is another thing to turn the world upside down because of the very real struggles of a tiny percentage of people, no matter how fragile they are, no matter how loved by God they are, and no matter how much we want to see them find peace and wholeness.We simply cannot deny reality and obscure (or even try to eliminate) the very thing that makes the world go around, as if anything and everything goes and the only thing that is not allowed to be normal is normal itself.And so, while we pray for Bruce Jenner, while we do our best to provide resources to help individuals who struggle with gender identity (including parents whose children are struggling), while we welcome those who identify as transgender into our church services and meet them where they are, we draw a line in the sand and say: Boys are not girls and girls are not boys and he is not ze and I’m not calling her zir and the gender binary will be celebrated rather than denigrated.http://www.charismanews.com/opinion/in-the-line-of-fire/51693-zis-is-what-i-call-social-madnesslast_img read more

Mr Green nets first ever football partnership with Wigan Athletic

first_img Submit David Clifton: Licensing Expert – Gambling faces a pivotal moment March 31, 2020 Maxima Compliance – ‘Mastering technical compliance to grow your global footprint’ June 9, 2020 Aspire builds Q1 momentum through regulated market focus May 5, 2020 Share Share Related Articles StumbleUpon European igaming and sports betting operator, Mr Green has confirmed that it has secured its first ever football partnership with English Championship side Wigan Athletic.The newly listed Nordic Nasdaq operator, will become ‘The Latics’ official ‘Betting and Gaming Partner’ for the remainder of the 2016/17 Championship Season.Mr Green marketing were pleased to have secured its first ever football partnership, stating that it would help the operator expand its brand and services within the saturated UK online betting market.The Wigan Athletic partnership, will see the Lancashire football club promote Mr Green’s new sports betting vertical launched this June, with the operator seeking to diversify its product range.Confirming the Partnership Alex Beecham Mr Green UK & Ireland Country Manager stated;This is another step towards growing our UK brand by working alongside a forward-thinking club with a proud history. Mr Green is delighted to partner with Wigan Athletic over the coming seasons and look forward to engaging Latics’ fans with our award-winning product,”last_img read more